Presidents in latin america-Presidents and democracy in Latin America

The Latin American countries viewed as part of this ideological trend have been referred to as "Pink Tide nations", [4] with the term post-neoliberalism being used to describe the movement as well. The pink tide was followed by the conservative wave , a political phenomenon that emerged in the mids in South America as a direct reaction to the pink tide. During the Cold War , a series of left-leaning governments attained power via electoral polls in Latin America. These governments faced coups sponsored [15] [16] [17] [18] by the United States government as part of its geostrategic interest in the region. All of these coups were followed by United States-backed and sponsored right-wing military dictatorships as part of the United States government's Operation Condor.

Presidents in latin america

Presidents in latin america

Mises Institute. Unsourced material may be challenged and Presidents in latin america. Agence France-Presse. Arkansas Political Science Association. He was also a die-hard opponent of corrupt government officials The Economist. Its loans have helped sustain leftist governments pursuing otherwise unsustainable policies in Argentina, Ecuador, and Venezuela, whose leaders welcomed Chinese aid as an amerifa to the strict conditions imposed by the International Monetary Fund or the financial markets. This section needs expansion. Unlike other texts, Presidents and Democracy in Latin America integrates both political analysis and major theoretical Presidents in latin america with extensive country-specific material. His regime lost appeal because of its mounting authoritarianism and economic difficulties.

Tracy coenen fraud investigator. Presidents and democracy in Latin America

The general context has changed significantly and each country's Presidents in latin america has evolved accordingly. The vote, of course, is a Presidents in latin america. Some of these academics, in fact, argue that this definitively turned the TIAR into a dead letter, [68] and the Mexican government withdrew from the treaty in citing the Falklands example, though notably Argentina itself is still a TIAR member. Senator Edward Carmack was quoted as saying, "There never was any real insurrection in Panama. Though many other countries in the region may have been influenced or dominated by American banana or other companies, latjn is no history of U. Bush U. Texas, settled primarily by Anglo-Americans, fought a successful oatin of independence against Mexico in After the implementation of several economic reforms, including complete nationalizations by Cuba's government, US trade restrictions on Cuba increased. Retrieved 18 January President Michelle Bachelet Presidents in latin america elected for the first time in The Ostend Manifesto of was a proposal circulated by American Gaay sex vids that proposed the United States offer to purchase Cuba from Spain, while implying that the U.

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  • Eleven United States presidents and one president-elect have made presidential visits to South America.
  • Both the coup and the following authoritarian regime was eagerly endorsed and supported by the United States government [1] with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger paying several official visits to Argentina during the dictatorship.

Over the years, many men and a few women have been president of the different nations of South America. Some have been crooked, some noble, and some misunderstood, but their lives and accomplishments are always interesting. His reputation precedes him: Hugo Chavez, Venezuela's fiery left-wing dictator once famously called George W. Bush a "donkey" and the distinguished King of Spain once told him to shut up. Real close. He gave away state money to the Vatican, dedicated the Republic to "The Sacred Heart of Jesus," did away with state-run education he put the Jesuits in charge nationwide and locked up anyone who complained.

In spite of his successes the Jesuits did a much better job in the schools than the state had, for example The people of Ecuador eventually got fed up with him and he was assassinated in the street. Ask ten Chileans and you'll get ten different opinions of Augusto Pinochet, president from to Some say he's a savior, who saved the nation first from the socialism of Salvador Allende and then from rebels who wanted to turn Chile into the next Cuba.

Others think he was a monster, responsible for decades of terror inflicted by the government on its own citizens. Which is the real Pinochet? Read his biography and make up your mind for yourself. Like Pinochet, Fujimori is a controversial figure. He cracked down on the Maoist guerrilla group the Shining Path which had terrorized the nation for years and oversaw the capture of terrorist leader Abimael Guzman. He stabilized the economy and put millions of Peruvians to work.

So why is he currently in a Peruvian jail? Francisco de Paula Santander was president of the now-defunct Republic of Gran Colombia from to At first one of Simon Bolivar's greatest friends and supporters, he later became the Liberator's implacable enemy and was believed by many to be part of a failed plot to assassinate his former friend in Although he was an able statesman and decent president, he is today remembered primarily as foil to Bolivar and his reputation has suffered somewhat unfairly because of it.

A liberal, he wanted to use the newfound wealth from Chile's booming industries to improve the lot of ordinary Chilean workers and miners. He even angered his own party with his insistence on social reform. Although his conflicts with Congress drove his country into civil war and he eventually committed suicide, Chileans today remember him as one of their best presidents.

An eccentric dictator, he was eventually deposed by his own party when his visits to France from where he would rule by telegram to his subordinates back home became intolerable.

He was famous for his personal vanity: he ordered numerous portraits of himself, delighted in receiving honorary degrees from prestigious universities, and enjoyed the trappings of office. He was also a die-hard opponent of corrupt government officials While in exile, Torres attempted to subvert the Bolivian military government. He was assassinated in June of , and many believe Banzer gave the order. Fernando Lugo Mendez, President of Paraguay, is no stranger to controversy.

Once a Catholic Bishop, Lugo resigned his post to run for President. His presidency, which ended decades of one-party rule, has already survived a messy paternity scandal. A progressive, he has walked the fine line between progress and responsibility, and has the support of Brazil's poor as well as captains of industry.

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Johnson U. Nothing came of it. His presidency, which ended decades of one-party rule, has already survived a messy paternity scandal. See also: Guatemalan Civil War. Multilateral relations.

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Hull endorsed the resolution, "No country has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another. President Roosevelt's policy after was to pay special attention to Latin America, to fend off German influence, to build a united front on behalf of the war effort, and then to win support for the United Nations.

Only Brazil contributed significant numbers of men to fight. It spent millions on radio broadcasts and motion pictures, hoping to reach a large audience. Madison Avenue techniques generated a push back in Mexico, especially, where well-informed locals resisted heavy-handed American influence. A deal was reached whereby , Mexican citizens living in the United States served in the American forces; over were killed in combat. On the whole the Roosevelt policy was a political success, except in Argentina, which tolerated German influence, and refused to follow Washington's lead until the war was practically over.

After the United States declared war on Germany in December , the Federal Bureau of Investigation drafted a list of Germans in fifteen Latin American countries it suspected of subversive activities and demanded their eviction to the U. In response, several countries expelled a total of 4, Germans to the U. Also among them were 81 Jewish Germans who had only recently fled persecution in Nazi Germany.

The bulk were ordinary Germans who were residents in the Latin American states for years or decades. Some were expelled because corrupt Latin American officials took the opportunity to seize their property or ordinary Latin Americans were after the financial reward that U. Argentina , Brazil , Chile and Mexico did not participate in the U. It officially started in with the Truman doctrine theorizing the " containment " policy, the Cold War had important consequences in Latin America.

It "must be the policy of the United States", Truman declared, "to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.

By aiding Greece, Truman set a precedent for U. During the war, Washington had been able to secure Allied support from all individual governments except Uruguay , which remained neutral, and wished to make those commitments permanent. With the exceptions of Trinidad and Tobago , Belize and the Bahamas , no countries that became independent after have joined the treaty.

Secretary of State George Marshall. Member states pledged to fight communism on the American continent. Background: Arbenz pursued an ambitious social program that focused on income distribution and economic nationalism. This included agrarian land reform, which meant expropriating over , acres of land from the United Fruit Company A US-based, banana production firm.

The central disagreement came from the fact that the Guatemalan government did not place much value on the lands because they were not immediately being used for production. The United Fruit Company countered by arguing that they needed extra acres to avoid soil exhaustion, and to keep the plantations separated to avoid dissemination of plant disease. In the end, the Eisenhower administration responded by approving a secret operation to overthrow Arbenz using some Guatemalan rebel forces stationed in Honduras.

Part of the rationale for this measure was that the administration had come to view Arbenz as a communist threat. Ultimately, the rebel forces removed Arbenz from power, nullified his reforms, and United Fruit got their expropriated lands back. Also, the Inter-American Development Bank was established in Supported by the U. State Department, the commission accused the dictator Rafael Trujillo of flagrant and numerous violations of human rights against the citizens of the Dominican Republic.

Trujillo retaliated against the chief proponent of the report, Venezuelan President Romulo Betancourt , by actively supporting an assassination attempt. The plot failed and Trujillo's involvement in the conspiracy became public in a report by the OAS Council's the organization's general assembly investigating committee. Composed of representatives from the United States, Argentina, Mexico, Panama, and Uruguay, the committee verified Dominican complicity and placed responsibility on "high officials" within the government.

Responding to a Venezuelan call for collective action, on 20 August the OAS Council passed a resolution invoking diplomatic and economic sanctions against the Trujillo government. The resolution, passed fourteen to one the Dominican Republic dissented while Brazil, Argentina, Guatemala, Haiti, Paraguay, and Uruguay abstained , marked the first time that the organization had taken such actions against a member nation.

As a show of support, President Dwight D. Eisenhower suspended all economic and diplomatic relations with the Dominican Republic. Trujillo was assassinated on 31 May by a small band of conspirators led by Antonio de la Maza and Antonio Imbert Barrera.

The coup attempt that followed failed to seize power and all of the conspirators except Imbert were found and executed by Ramfis Trujillo , the dictator's son, who remained in de facto control of the government for the next six months through his position as commander of the armed forces.

Trujillo's brothers, Hector Bienvenido and Jose Arismendi Trujillo, returned to the country and began immediately to plot against President Balaguer. Secretary of State Dean Rusk issued a warning that the United States would not "remain idle" if the Trujillos attempted to "reassert dictatorial domination" over the Dominican Republic. Following this warning, and the arrival of a fourteen-vessel U.

The slogan 'we will not allow another Cuba' hides the possibility of perpetrating aggressions without fear of reprisal, such as the one carried out against the Dominican Republic or before that the massacre in Panama — and the clear warning stating that Yankee troops are ready to intervene anywhere in America where the ruling regime may be altered, thus endangering their interests.

In , Cuba became a member of the newly created Non-Aligned Movement , which succeeded the Bandung Conference. After the implementation of several economic reforms, including complete nationalizations by Cuba's government, US trade restrictions on Cuba increased. Additionally, the U.

In March , tensions increased when the freighter La Coubre exploded in Havana harbor, killing over 75 people. Fidel Castro blamed the United States and compared the incident to the sinking of the USS Maine , which had precipitated the Spanish—American War ; he could provide no evidence for his accusation.

Eisenhower authorized the CIA to organize, train and equip Cuban refugees as a guerrilla force to overthrow Castro, which would lead to the failed Bay of Pigs invasion authorized by president John F. Every time the Cuban government nationalized US properties, the US government took countermeasures, resulting in the prohibition of all exports to Cuba on October 19, Consequently, Cuba began to consolidate trade relations with the Soviet Union , leading the US to break off all remaining official diplomatic relations.

Later that year, U. Sweet and Wiliam G. Friedman were arrested and expelled from the island, having been charged with "encouraging terrorist acts, granting asylum, financing subversive publications and smuggling weapons".

The Cuban project also proposed false flag attacks, known as Operation Northwoods. Senate Select Intelligence Committee report later confirmed over eight attempted plots to kill Castro between and , as well as additional plans against other Cuban leaders.

Besides this aggressive policy towards Cuba, John F. Kennedy tried to implement the Alliance for Progress , an economic aid program which proved to be too shy signed at an inter-American conference at Punta del Este , Uruguay, in August Elements of the left parties then formed the Armed Forces for National Liberation FALN , a communist guerrilla army, to overthrow the democratic Betancourt administration. FALN failed to rally the rural poor and to disrupt the presidential elections.

At the same time, the U. However, these suspensions were imposed only temporarily, for periods of only three weeks to six months. However, the US finally decided it best to train Latin American militaries in counter-insurgency tactics at the School of the Americas. In effect, the Alliance for Progress included U. The nuclear arms race brought the two superpowers to the brink of nuclear war.

In , President John F. Kennedy responded to the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba with a naval blockade—a show of force that brought the world close to nuclear war. The aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis led to the first efforts toward nuclear disarmament and improving relations.

By , under President Lyndon Johnson, the program to discriminate against dictatorial regimes ceased. In March , the U.

Earlier the OAS issued a resolution calling the combatants to end all hostilities. On May 5, the OAS Peace Committee arrived in Santo Domingo and a second definite cease fire agreement was signed, ending the main phase of the civil war.

Under the Act of Santo Domingo, OAS was tasked with overseeing the implementation of the peace deal as well as distributing food and medication through the capital. The treaties failed to fully prevent violations such as small scale firefights and sniper fire. On May 26, U. Balaguer emerged victorious in the elections, after building his campaign on promises of reconciliation.

On September 21, , the last OAS peacekeepers withdrew from the island, ending the foreign intervention in the conflict. Following the Cuban Revolution and the local implementation in several countries of Che Guevara 's foco theory , the US waged a war in South America [ citation needed ] against what it called "Communist subversives ", leading to support of coups against democratically elected presidents such as the backing of the Chilean right wing , which would culminate with Augusto Pinochet 's Chilean coup against democratically-elected Salvador Allende.

By , all of South America was covered by similar military dictatorships, called juntas. In Peru , leftist General Velasco Alvarado in power since , planned to use the recently empowered Peruvian military to overwhelm Chilean armed forces in a planned invasion of Pinochetist Chile.

A " Dirty War " was waged all over the subcontinent, culminating with Operation Condor , an agreement between security services of the Southern Cone and other South American countries to repress and assassinate political opponents, which was backed by the US government. In the frame of Operation Charly , supported by the US, the Argentine military exported state terror tactics to Central America, where the "dirty war" was waged until well into the s, making hundreds of thousands " disappeared ".

With the election of President Jimmy Carter in , the US moderated for a short time its support to authoritarian regimes in Latin America. At the same time, voices in the US [ who? The inauguration of Ronald Reagan in meant a renewed support for right-wing authoritarian regimes in Latin America. In the s, the situation progressively evolved in the world as in South America, despite a renewal of the Cold War from to , the year during which Mikhail Gorbachev replaced Konstantin Chernenko as leader of the USSR, and began to implement the glasnost and the perestroika democratic-inspired reforms.

South America saw various states returning progressively to democracy. However, at the same time, Washington started to aggressively pursue the " War on Drugs ", which included the invasion of Panama in to overthrow Manuel Noriega , who had been a long-time ally of the US and had even worked for the CIA before his reign as leader of the country.

While the United States was officially neutral in the conflict, allegations that Reagan provided intelligence to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher during the war had a key role in the change of relations between Washington and Buenos Aires, as the military government had been actively helping Reagan.

The Argentine intelligence service was training and arming the Nicaraguan Contras against the Sandinista government Operation Charly. While the U.

Due to the covert U. In Brazil , this was taken by the academic establishment as a clear example of how the Hemispheric relations worked, leading to new perspectives in matters of foreign policy and international relations by the Brazilian establishment. Some of these academics, in fact, argue that this definitively turned the TIAR into a dead letter, [68] and the Mexican government withdrew from the treaty in citing the Falklands example, though notably Argentina itself is still a TIAR member.

While globalization was making its effects felt in the whole world, the s were dominated by the Washington Consensus , which imposed a series of neo-liberal economic reforms in Latin America. The political context evolved again in the s, with the election in several South American countries of socialist governments.

Although these leaders vary in their policies and attitude towards both Washington, D. The state of Bolivia also has seen some friction with Brazil, as well as Chile. On one side, you have a number of administrations that are committed to moderate economic reform. On the other, you've had something of a backlash against the Washington Consensus [a set of liberal economic policies that Washington-based institutions urged Latin American countries to follow, including privatization, trade liberalization and fiscal discipline] and some emergence of populist leaders [81].

Bush administration as much as the latter attacked him, and claimed to be following a democratic socialist Bolivarian Revolution , the geo-political context has changed a lot since the s.

Larry Birns , director of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs , thus stated:. La Paz has found itself at the economic and political nexus of the pink tide, linked by ideology to Caracas , but economically bound to Brasilia and Buenos Aires. One thing that Morales knew, however, was that he couldn't repudiate his campaign pledges to the electorate or deprive Bolivia of the revenue that is so urgently needed. Momentum for the Free Trade Area of the Americas ALCA was lost after the Mar del Plata Summit of the Americas , which saw strong protests against the proposal from members of the Anti-Globalization Movement from across the continent, however free trade agreements were not abandoned.

Regional economic integration under the sign of neoliberalism continued: Under the Bush administration , the United States, which had signed two free-trade agreements with Latin American countries, signed eight further agreements, reaching a total of ten such bilateral agreements including the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement in , the Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement in , etc. The Cuzco Declaration , signed a few weeks before at the Third South American Summit , announced the foundation of the Union of South American Nations Unasul-Unasur grouping Mercosul countries and the Andean Community and which as the aim of eliminating tariffs for non-sensitive products by and sensitive products by Canada, which also has a free-trade agreement with Costa Rica, has also been negotiating such an agreement with Central American country, named Canada Central American Free Trade Agreement.

Mercosur , the trade agreement between Argentina , Brazil , Paraguay and Uruguay with Venezuela currently suspended is also in negotiations to sign a wider free-trade agreement with the European Union , following the signing of similar agreements with the Andean Community , Israel [87] and Egypt [88] in August , among others. These negotiations between Mercosur and the EU are advancing rapidly again after stalling during the s. The agreement, originally signed on 4 February , is being renegotiated after the United States withdrew.

Apart from binational free-trade agreements, the US has also signed a number of bilateral investment treaties BIT with Latin American countries, establishing the conditions of foreign direct investment. These treaties include "fair and equitable treatment", protection from expropriation , free transfer of means and full protection and security.

In case of a disagreement between a multinational firm and a state over some kind of investment made in a Latin American country, the firm may depose a lawsuit before the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes International Center for the Resolution of Investment Disputes , which is an international court depending on the World Bank.

Such a lawsuit was deposed by the US-based multinational firm Bechtel following its expulsion from Bolivia during the Cochabamba protests of Local population had demonstrated against the privatization of the water company, requested by the World Bank, after poor management of the water by Bechtel. However, the firm finally decided to drop the case in after an international protest campaign.

Such BIT were passed between the US and numerous countries the given date is not of signature but of entrance in force of the treaty : Argentina , Bolivia , Ecuador , Grenada , Honduras , Jamaica , Panama , amended in , Trinidad and Tobago Others where signed but not ratified: El Salvador , Haiti — one of the earliest, preceded by Panama , Nicaragua Venezuela, Cuba and Bolivia signed the TCP or People's Trade Agreement , while Venezuela, a main productor of natural gas and of petroleum it is member of the OPEC has signed treaties with Nicaragua, where Daniel Ortega , former leader of the Sandinistas, was elected in — Ortega, however, cut down his anti-imperialist and socialist discourse, and is hotly controversial; both on the right-wing and on the left-wing.

The Brigade was dissolved in April following the retirement of Spain from Iraq , and all Latin American nations, except El Salvador, withdrew their troops. In September , it was revealed that Triple Canopy, Inc. Triple Canopy also has a subsidiary in Peru. In July , Salvadoran president Antonio Saca reduced the number of deployed troops in Iraq from , to soldiers. The struggle for natural resources and the US defense of its commercial interests has not ceased since the zenith period of the banana republics supported by the US.

The general context has changed significantly and each country's approach has evolved accordingly. A proof of the new geopolitical context can be seen in Evo Morales ' announcement, in concordance with his electoral promises, of the nationalization of gas reserves, the second highest in South America after Venezuela.

First of all, he carefully warned that they would not take the form of expropriations or confiscations , maybe fearing a violent response. Thus, Brazil's Energy Minister, Silas Rondeau , reacted to Morales' announcement by condemning the move as "unfriendly. After initially hostile reactions, Repsol "expressed its willingness to cooperate with the Bolivian government," while Petrobras retreated its call to cancel new investment in Bolivia.

In a review of published academic books and articles on US-Latin America relations, Bertucci noted that the subject appears and combined a number of academic disciplines, including history, political science, international relations, and economics. Descriptive and normative research is prevalent, and that in works published through , explicit theory-building and hypothesis-testing was limited. There are two broad schools of thought on Latin America—United States relations: [] [].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Multilateral and interregional relationships. Main article: Monroe Doctrine. Main article: War of the Pacific. Further information: History of the Panama Canal.

Main article: United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution. Further information: Banana Wars. Further information: Cold War — Senator J. We the U. We not only ignored poverty and distress in Cuba — we have failed in the past eight years to relieve poverty and distress throughout the hemisphere. Kennedy , October 6, [62]. Further information: Bilateral investment treaty. Main article: Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.

Further information: History of Bolivia. Intervention, —" PDF. International Security. December 26, September 11, Leonard, Thomas M.

Latin America's Cold War. Cambridge, Mass. Journal of Cold War Studies. Diplomatic History. Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved March 23, Patrice In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. Huttenbach; Daniel Feierstein eds. December 22, Latin American Research Review. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved October 31, American Empire at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Joseph Campbell, Yellow journalism: Puncturing the myths, defining the legacies During three years of relentless war, the Cubans had destroyed railroad lines, bridges, and roads and paralyzed telegraph communications, making it all but impossible for the Spanish army to move across the island and between provinces.

Retrieved March 22, Beede The War of and U. Interventions, T An Encyclopedia. Senate: Official Declarations of War by Congress". June 29, Beneath the United States pg. Senator Edward Carmack was quoted as saying, "There never was any real insurrection in Panama. To all intents and purposes [sic] there was but one man in that insurrection, and that man was the President of the United States.

Toronto: Canadian Academy of the Arts, Chicago: University of Chicago Press , p. Leslie Bethell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , p. Nixon, ed. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Foreign Affairs : Volume I, — Secret Intelligence: A Reader.

Rockefeller: Worlds to Conquer, — pp — Transatlantic relations series. America, Russia, and the Cold War, — 7th ed. Craig Calhoun, ed. Oxford University Press. The World Since Others think he was a monster, responsible for decades of terror inflicted by the government on its own citizens. Which is the real Pinochet? Read his biography and make up your mind for yourself. Like Pinochet, Fujimori is a controversial figure.

He cracked down on the Maoist guerrilla group the Shining Path which had terrorized the nation for years and oversaw the capture of terrorist leader Abimael Guzman. He stabilized the economy and put millions of Peruvians to work. So why is he currently in a Peruvian jail? Francisco de Paula Santander was president of the now-defunct Republic of Gran Colombia from to At first one of Simon Bolivar's greatest friends and supporters, he later became the Liberator's implacable enemy and was believed by many to be part of a failed plot to assassinate his former friend in Although he was an able statesman and decent president, he is today remembered primarily as foil to Bolivar and his reputation has suffered somewhat unfairly because of it.

A liberal, he wanted to use the newfound wealth from Chile's booming industries to improve the lot of ordinary Chilean workers and miners. He even angered his own party with his insistence on social reform. Although his conflicts with Congress drove his country into civil war and he eventually committed suicide, Chileans today remember him as one of their best presidents.

An eccentric dictator, he was eventually deposed by his own party when his visits to France from where he would rule by telegram to his subordinates back home became intolerable. He was famous for his personal vanity: he ordered numerous portraits of himself, delighted in receiving honorary degrees from prestigious universities, and enjoyed the trappings of office.

He was also a die-hard opponent of corrupt government officials While in exile, Torres attempted to subvert the Bolivian military government. He was assassinated in June of , and many believe Banzer gave the order.

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Presidents in latin america