The hormone oxytocin causes contractions during labour, as well as contractions that deliver the placenta after the baby is born. In the weeks or days before you start having proper contractions, you may experience Braxton Hicks contractions. This is your uterus tightening then relaxing. As labour gets closer, your cervix softens and becomes thinner, getting ready for the dilation widening that will allow the baby to enter the vagina. Your baby may move further down your pelvis as the head engages , or sits in place over your cervix, ready for the birth.
Childbirth on television. Full size image. NSW Health Having a baby. New York: Childbirth Connection; Media Hist.
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Will any food be provided? Other women, sadly those of the much lower class, may have had to work right up until they went into labour as there was no one to cover their cnildbirthing responsibilities. Caesarean sections were not a common occurrence and were only performed if childbirthinf mother had died, in the hope of saving the unborn child. See the hottest baby name trends. You'll Pregnant childbirthing learn techniques Tranny on teen female help you relax and cope with labor. The midwife also played an extremely important role during birth. The death rate Pregnant childbirthing individual deliveries was not especially. Breastfeeding Support Group. Hora Soltani, Section Editor. Submit manuscript. Also a women's lack of regular menstruation chiodbirthing be related to several factors including illness, breast-feeding, excessive fasting or even a poor Pregnant childbirthing. Keep me logged in. General Information:
Muscular dystrophy is the name given to a group of genetic conditions characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting.
- We work closely with you and your family to help you have the childbirth experience you desire.
- This class helps prepare you, your partner or supporter for labor and birthing.
- Childbirth is openly discussed in today's society.
Metrics details. Considerable debate surrounds the influence media have on first-time pregnant women. Much of the academic literature discusses the influence of reality television, which often portrays birth as risky, dramatic and painful and there is evidence that this has a negative effect on childbirth in society, through the increasing anticipation of negative outcomes.
It is suggested that women seek out such programmes to help understand what could happen during the birth because there is a cultural void. However the impact that has on normal birth has not been explored. A scoping review relating to the representation of childbirth in the mass media, particularly on television.
Three key themes emerged: a medicalisation of childbirth; b women using media to learn about childbirth; and c birth as a missing everyday life event. Media appear to influence how women engage with childbirth. The dramatic television portrayal of birth may perpetuate the medicalisation of childbirth, and last, but not least, portrayals of normal birth are often missing in the popular media.
Hence midwives need to engage with television producers to improve the representation of midwifery and maternity in the media. A common concern is that reality television TV programmes often portray birth as risky, dramatic and painful and that this effects how childbirth is perceived in society [ 2 ].
It is argued that these influences are in part responsible for the rising rates of interventions in childbirth. Many high-income countries experience rising rates of childbirth intervention, without much evidence that such interventions lead to improvements in maternal or newborn outcomes [ 10 ]. Unnecessary interventions are associated with increased maternal and newborn morbidity. Explanatory factors for the rise in interventions and, occasionally, the increase in maternal request for intervention include previous negative birth experiences, and the way that childbirth is portrayed by the media, the latter leading to fear and anxiety about the birth process [ 12 ].
However, there has been little examination of the relationship between the media, culture and birth-related behaviour. The literature suggests that many women in the 21 st century learn about childbirth through television, as previous generations did, perhaps to a lesser extent, from childbirth manuals [ 2 ].
These discussions point toward a misrepresentation of normal childbirth on television and in newspapers [ 15 ]. The media-effects theory has long been regarded as too simplistic [ 17 ].
Halloran suggested over forty years ago that there is an interaction between the medium and the audience, the latter approaches every media episode with a complicated filter made up not only of their past and present , but also views and hopes for the future [ 17 ]. Women are exposed to a number of different viewpoints on and perceptions of childbirth that include: 1 an often stereotypical sensationalised version of the birthing process in the media; 2 stories from friends and relatives; 3 antenatal information provided by midwives, doctors, and other childbirth educators; and 4 personal experiences of giving birth.
Reality television often presents birth as unpredictable and potentially dangerous, pointing to a steady stream of programmes depicting hypertension, postpartum bleeding, cervical cancer, mothers in preterm labour and diabetes [ 6 ]. Yet women, often unaware of the range of experiences, continue to watch these programmes as birth preparation, as media users actively seek information and entertainment and select from it to satisfy their needs [ 18 ].
The latter includes practitioners' journals, conference papers, unpublished dissertations, books, literature from a range of public, private and voluntary sector bodies and government publications [ 20 ].
Scoping reviews do not seek to limit the included literature to a certain type of study e. Like a systematic review, the process is rigorous and transparent and documented in detail to enable the review to be replicated [ 19 ]. Databases were searched from their starting date until summer However, a high yield does not necessarily result in high precision rates, example. A total of 4, publications were identified and the titles and abstracts where available of the identified publications were screened and included if they met the following inclusion criteria: -.
All papers were read by two authors one with a media background AL and one with a health background MC , thematic analysis was undertaken to identify the key themes through reading and re-reading the included publications. Selected papers were read by the remaining authors to help decide on disagreements between the first two readers and to verify all themes.
As this is a secondary analysis of existing literature and no primary data were collected no ethical approval was required. The review comprises twelve qualitative and five quantitative published research studies, three unpublished research pieces and 18 elements of grey literature.
The latter includes 13 papers from professional journals, two conference proceedings, two on-line discussion fora and one book chapter. These three themes are presented under the key media groupings of television, print media, new media, and books: old media. The literature revealed a difference in the way that childbirth is depicted in different countries.
From the North-American perspective, medicalised childbirth is seen as the only option for mothers-to-be. In the UK, however, this discourse is only starting to emerge [ 22 ]. Many of the papers pointed towards a medicalization of birth within the media.
As medicine in the US began to gain power and influence in the 20 th century doctors began to displace midwives as the primary provider of maternity care [ 24 ]. This was part of a general trend of the growing prestige of science, which started in the late 19 th century in the US.
Prior to the s, midwives played a large role in all births; however, when obstetricians began categorising births as either normal or abnormal, their role began to diminish significantly, thus paving the way for the medicalisation of childbirth [ 4 , 5 ]. Medical intervention in childbirth in the US is now the norm, with nearly half of all births being started artificially, four-fifths of women receiving intravenous fluids, three-quarters receiving epidural analgesia to reduce pain and a third of babies now born by caesarean section [ 28 ].
This medicalisation has created disconnect between the pregnant woman and her body. The male medical profession managed to convince middle-class women in the early 20th century to abandon the social model of care as practised by midwives and seek their services in hospitals under the promise of safer and less painful births [ 7 ]. By medicalising childbirth, the medical establishment rendered both women and midwives as passive agents in the birthing process.
As the mistrust of midwives grew in the US, public opinion about midwives began to change [ 4 ], and so did the modes of birth that women were offered [ 26 ]. Although women have several birthing options, the way that reality television constructs birth is contrived as its needs to have entertainment value and hence predominantly promoting a medical model of birth [ 29 ]. Murray and Ouellette remind us, that we are aware that reality TV is constructed and partly fictional and still such portrayal whets our desire for the authentic [ 30 ].
Similarly, Clement concluded that the images of childbirth viewers see are not an accurate reflection of labour and delivery in Britain [ 31 ]. Kitzinger and Kitzinger make the transatlantic link as television has produced a powerful mythology of birth, since a number of television programmes aired in Europe are from North America, and with it the medical model is slowly seeping into the public sphere [ 32 ].
What this scoping review has found is that while researchers recognised television programmes as fictional or constructed in a particular way for a viewing audience, they questioned why TV producers present information in this way [ 5 ]. However, reality television is as a genre known to stretch the truth. This medium requires drama, danger, crises and unusual events such as unpredictable and fast deliveries and doctors as heroes, hence a typical birth with a normal slow and lengthy labour without interventions and pain relief and attended by a midwife is less likely to be shown [ 31 ].
The literature suggests that many pregnant women find reality television helps them to understand what could happen during childbirth [ 5 , 8 , 26 , 29 , 35 ].
Reality TV programmes on pregnancy and labour seek to demystify childbirth, and many first-time mothers find it helpful to see inside maternity wards so they know what to expect [ 40 ]. Holdsworth-Taylor goes one step further adding that Canadian women seek out reality television to add to their knowledge [ 40 ], because there is a cultural void [ 8 ].
Barker recommends that UK midwives should watch reality television so they can speak to pregnant mothers when they have questions partly based on unrealistic scenarios presented on reality television and soap operas [ 3 ]. Haken believes that a woman, who is already disengaged from the medicalised birthing process, is even further removed by watching unrealistic scenes on television [ 35 ]. As women turn to television to learn how others feel and cope with childbirth, birth is no longer a natural experience that women own, rather generations of women have never seen a real-life birth before they themselves experience it [ 28 ].
What is underreported in the literature is the role newspapers and magazines play in the childbirth experience. While she did not conduct primary research, she highlighted that such sensationalistic headlines could influence women to avoid seeking a midwife, and instead choose a medicalised birth [ 43 ]. A recent review of British newspapers highlights a distorted view of birth focusing on risk, which, MacLean argues, prompts a vicious cycle of intervention that starts with fear [ 23 ].
Two print-media-based studies were reported in Australia [ 44 , 45 ]. The second study of one particular national newspaper suggested the general public in Australia may be too worried of the consequences to consider a move away from reliance on traditional medical-led maternity care [ 45 ]. Whilst magazines in New Zealand framed pregnancy as an unusual event requiring time, vigilance, and consumption of information, goods and services to successfully perform [ 46 ]. The recent Listening to Mothers III study revealed that two-in-three pregnant women received regular email updates with information about pregnancy and childbirth [ 50 ].
While US mothers in Listening to Mothers III sought out information for themselves, Australia women turned to the Internet for information to discuss with their doctor [ 47 ]. As yet, there is no study that looks at how British pregnant women engage with the Internet.
Much of the research around usage of the Internet and pregnancy comes from the US. Women use the Internet to understand what a normal childbirth experience should look like. With the move of birth from the home to hospital, childbirth is missing from everyday life. It has been relegated to something that should be kept from view unless dramatised within television accounts , as a consequence women have a difficult time in understanding the process of childbirth.
Schmid comments that our current lifestyle is too removed from natural experiences [ 52 ]. Moffat showed how discourses around childbirth and the media that mothers seek out for information have changed over the last 30 years [ 53 ]. Books were the main source of information in the s in the US, with television, newspapers and radios being the least used to find out about childbirth.
Even today, many new mothers cited impersonal sources e. Therefore, women and health professionals should both assess these information resources and together discuss implications for childbirth [ 2 ]. One key issue with audience reception is that is not easily observable, except in fragmentary or indirect ways [ 54 ]. McQuail also reminds us that audiences are a product of social context and media provision, meaning that an audience can be defined in overlapping ways, and media use reflecting wider patterns of lifestyle, daily routines and time allocation [ 54 ].
It is this literature that is missing from our body of knowledge and hence the current review. The research conducted thus far fails to take into consideration that the relationship between cause and effect is not one way. There are many external influences that need to be considered: socioeconomic and environmental factors, fear of childbirth and lack of first-hand knowledge of childbirth.
Media representations of childbirth and labour merely reflect the ideologies of society. Ideology refers to an integrated set of frames of reference through which we sees the world and to which all of us adjust our actions [ 55 ]. Ideology controls what we see as natural or obvious and colours what we see a particular birth, or a midwifery consultation or our antenatal visit [ 56 ]. The medical model, the dominant discourse, encourages women to make use of medical technology, such as monitoring and anesthesia to help reduce the perceived risks and fears associated with giving birth, and in the process move away from labour and birth as physiological processes.
Proponents of the medical model argue that childbirth is only safe in retrospect [ 56 ], encouraging us to see childbirth as inherently risky for mother and baby. To reduce this perceived risk, a medical birth tends to occur in hospital with electronic fetal monitoring as well as a range of interventions such as forceps or caesarean sections, and typically supervised by a doctor [ 59 ].
The problem with the promotion of interventions is that there is a paucity of evidence around the routine use of many such childbirth interventions. It is important to take into consideration the societal ideological viewpoints of childbirth and labour, for instance, in the US, the predominant approach is the medical model; whilst in the UK both models have currency although the medical model is dominant. Changing this ideology, starting with its portrayal in the media can only be accomplished if midwives engage with popular discourses about the risks and dangers of childbirth that appear on popular reality and fictional television shows.
What needs to be taken into consideration is the notion of natural versus medicalised childbirth. This discourse is merely a replication of US social views that having a baby with the aid of a doctor is safer than with a midwife [ 5 , 22 ]. Handfield et al. It could be argued that the medical establishment puts forth a medicalised discourse, such as the one that causes fear in women, to maintain power and control over how and where women give birth. This review has shown that depictions of childbirth and labour indicate that women face social anxieties around their pregnancy.
Women who watch reality TV about childbirth, learn how they should and should not react, i. The latter process is not unique to childbirth, as Kingdon found in the study of representation of depression in the media [ 65 ].
Password Forgot your password? According to Lamaze International , the goal of Lamaze class is to help women learn to trust their inner wisdom and make informed choices about their healthcare. The International Childbirth Education Association has a certified member's directory that allows you to search for instructors by state. Women were also banned from promising to go on pilgrimage for the safe delivery of their unborn children. The typical class consists of lectures, discussions, and exercises, all led by a trained childbirth instructor. The Lamaze philosophy stipulates that "birth is normal, natural, and healthy" and that "women have a right to give birth free from routine medical interventions.
Pregnant childbirthing. What will I learn from a childbirth class?
Pregnancy and childbirth | askderekscruggs.com
Muscular dystrophy is the name given to a group of genetic conditions characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Reduced muscle strength in women with such disorders can cause complications during pregnancy and childbirth.
It is essential that women discuss the potential complications of pregnancy with their medical team primary care doctor, neurologist, cardiologist, pulmonologist, obstetrician, anesthesiologist, pediatrician, etc. Added weight due to the growth of the fetus contributes to muscle weakness; women may have to use a wheelchair toward the end of their pregnancy.
Limited mobility can aggravate the symptoms of muscle weakness in these patients. Pregnancy can also worsen breathing in muscular dystrophy patients who have poor lung function. The muscles in the abdomen support breathing and weakening of those muscles already causes reduced breathing capacity, which can be compounded by the enlarging abdomen.
In patients with heart involvement, pregnancy can cause further complications. Excess fluid due to pregnancy and the extra weight can force the heart to work harder, putting extra strain on it. Scoliosis and contractures can make pregnancy difficult, and add strain on the heart and lungs to sustain both mother and child as the pregnancy progresses.
Women with myotonic dystrophy are at greater risk of complications associated with pregnancy. In myotonic dystrophy patients, involuntary or smooth muscles on the linings of the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, uterus, and urinary tract are also involved.
Abnormalities in the muscles in the womb and vagina can increase the risk of miscarriage, heavy bleeding, premature labor due to excess fluid around the baby, and retention of the placenta. Changes in body composition due to pregnancy increase the chances of diabetes and other complications. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy FSHD usually manifests in women around childbearing age. Although limited information is available about the impact of muscle weakness in women with FSDH, there is a markedly higher risk of low birth weight in babies born to women with FSHD.
The voluntary muscles of the abdomen are weak in muscular dystrophy patients and can make pushing difficult, prolonging labor. In such cases, assisted labor and delivery with the help of forceps or vacuum assist may be required, especially in patients with myotonic dystrophy.
In anticipation of such issues, some patients may opt for cesarean delivery. It involves some effort from the patient while small contractions help deliver the placenta. Muscular dystrophy patients are at increased risk of complications in the use of general anesthesia. Therefore, epidural anesthesia is preferred over general anesthesia in such patients.
All muscular dystrophy patients are at a higher risk of developing chest infections following general anesthesia. Once the baby is born, many duties must be performed to care for the child in the years to come. People with muscular dystrophy may have difficulty holding and caring for the baby because of muscle weakness in the upper body. Physical and psychological help may be warranted for such patients.
It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. Muscular dystrophy and pregnancy It is essential that women discuss the potential complications of pregnancy with their medical team primary care doctor, neurologist, cardiologist, pulmonologist, obstetrician, anesthesiologist, pediatrician, etc.
Muscular dystrophy and anesthesia Muscular dystrophy patients are at increased risk of complications in the use of general anesthesia. Other points to consider Once the baby is born, many duties must be performed to care for the child in the years to come.
Author Details. Vijaya Iyer, PhD. Vijaya Iyer is a freelance science writer for BioNews Services. She has contributed content to their several disease-specific websites, including cystic fibrosis, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, among others. She holds a PhD in Microbiology from Kansas State University, where her research focused on molecular biology, bacterial interactions, metabolism, and animal models to study bacterial infections. Following the completion of her PhD, Dr.
She joined BioNews Services to utilize her scientific background and writing skills to help patients and caregivers remain abreast with important scientific breakthroughs.